The Pulse is Pacta’s in-house periodic newsletter that carries legal updates for the social sector. We decrypt legalese into digestible, relevant & actionable content. In every issue, we pick a subject – a new law, amendment or judgement and contextualise it for non-profit founders and administrators.
4 March 2024
This article explores the case laws pertaining to contract-based/temporray workers claiming permanency and what the courts in India have said in this regard. The article also provides a guide for NGOs to mitigate the risks while hiring FTEs and contract-based workers.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
20 January 2024
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) had notified the detailed framework on Social Stock Exchange (SSE) vide its circular SEBI/HO/CFD/PoD-1/P/CIR/2022/120 dated September 19, 2022 (“SSE Framework”).

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
8 December 2023
Developments in Disability Law & Policy

By Krithika Sambasivan
7 October 2023
The Mediation Act 2023 (the Act), received the assent of the President of India on September 15, 2023.

By Dishari Chakrabarti
4 September 2023
Developments in Disability Law & Policy

By Krithika Sambasivan
21 July 2023
Developments in Disability Law & Policy

By Krithika Sambasivan
11 July 2023
From the High Court of Delhi - Students can get EWS reservation in any school that is not necessarily in their neighbourhood, but they may have to spend on transport costs from their own pocket

By Manasvini Ranganathan
14 June 2023
Developments in Disability Law & Policy

By Manasvini Ranganathan
5 May 2023
The article looks at the implications of the amendments made to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act in March 2023 on Non-Governmental Organisations, including trusts.

By Anagha Sasidharan
18 March 2023
Community engagement and programs run by not-for-profit organisations have a deep impact on communities/people/institutions.

By Geetanjali Bisht
13 February 2023
The article explores the implications of the Social Stock Exchange for Civil Society Organisations

By Manasvini Ranganathan
30 December 2022
The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology ("MEITY") has issued a draft of the Digital Personal Data Protection Bill, 2022 ("the Bill") available for public comment, along with a note that explains each provision and the principles behind them.

By Dishari and Varsha (Interns)
20 December 2022
On 19th October 2022, the Supreme Court of India, in Civil Appeal No. 21762 OF 2017, in the case of Assistant Commissioner of Income Tax (Exemptions) Vs. Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority ruled on the applicability of tax exemption to charitable trusts and institutions engaged in revenue generating/ commercial/ business activities.

By Ipsita Mishra
24 November 2022
Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 mandates companies with a net worth of INR 500 crore or more/turnover of INR 1000 crore or more/net profit of INR 5 crore or more during any financial year, to spend 2% of their average net profit on corporate social responsibility (CSR). Schedule VII of the Companies Act prescribes the activities that can be called as CSR activities.

By Ipsita Mishra
24 October 2022
The main issue considered by the court was the interpretation of Section 10(23C)(iiiad) of the Income Tax Act.

By Vaishnavi Chaudhry
14 October 2022
(Independent Schools’ Federation of India (Regd.) versus Union of India and Another)

By Priya Jagadeesh
12 September 2022
(Sri Bijoy Kumar Hrangkhawl v. Tripura State Electricity Corporation Limited (TSECL) and Ors.)

By Priya Jagadeesh
30 August 2022
This article analyses the implications of what may be a potentially land mark order in achieving inclusion

By Priya Jagadeesh
9 July 2022
The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 (‘FCRA’) is applicable to all non-profits which receive foreign donations.

By Priya Jagadeesh
11 May 2022
The constitutional validity of the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2020 (FCRA Amendment) was challenged before the Supreme Court in a recent case in Noel Harper Vs. Union of India.

By Priya Jagadeesh
29 April 2022
Pacta provides a summary of recently released forms on disclosure of donations by NGOs.provides a summary of recently released forms on disclosure of donations by NGOs.

By Priya Jagadeesh
26 July 2021
Response to Public Notice on Draft Guidelines for Conducting Written Examination for persons having less than 40% disability or persons having medical condition that may restrict their writing capacity

By Nivedita Krishna
3 July 2021
The second wave of COVID-19 saw an unprecedented number of deaths. Particularly, the social sector lost many prominent social and human rights activists to the pandemic.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
21 May 2021
A grant agreement crystallizes the terms under which one party agrees to grant funds to the other, mostly for achieving a social purpose.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
18 February 2021
Civil society organizations often engage in primary data collection, storage and processing for operational functions and research purposes. Such data often includes personal and sensitive information protected by law and provided with an assurance of anonymity and confidentiality. These organizations are required to follow several legal obligations to ensure that data collection, storage, and processing is done with adequate protection to the data provider’s privacy rights.

By Nivedita Krishna
25 January 2021
Non-profits can breathe a sigh of relief as it appears that the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has taken into consideration the views and opinions of the public pursuant to the draft CSR Rules notified in 2020.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
29 December 2020
In this issue we will deal with regulatory framework regarding cheating by personation, fraud and misrepresentation electronically.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy & Deepti Shriram
27 November 2020
Summarising Amendments to FCRA - Act, Rules and related SOP

By Nivedita Krishna & Nandini Narayanaswamy
5 November 2020
In common parlance “charitable activities” carried out by a trust or other non-profit institution aim at benefiting the society at large. However, not all such activities fall within the definition of “charitable” under the law.

By Nivedita Krishna
9 October 2020
Salary, bonus and other entitlements to teachers in the private unaided schools have been a subject matter of a constant debate. Schools are still unclear about being within the ambit the various Central and State laws on teacher compensation & benefits.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
22 September 2020
This issue carries some updates on the latest amendment. Also provided are insights into the proposed amendment to the CSR Rules.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
11 September 2020
The Consumer Protection Act, 2019 (“CPA”) was enacted on August 9, 2019. It replaced the earlier Consumer Protection Act, 1986. The new law now brings with its ambit e-commerce transactions.

By Nivedita Krishna
14 August 2020
This issue carries the Supreme Court directives to CCIs following Covid-19

By Nivedita Krishna
31 July 2020
If the National Education Policy that was announced on 29th July, 2020 had been approved a year ago, it is likely that the pandemic’s impact on the education sector would not have been this catastrophic.

By Nivedita Krishna
16 July 2020
The Karnataka Government has formalized the fixed term employees by passing the Karnataka Industrial Employment (Standing Order) Rules, 1961

By Nivedita Krishna
6 July 2020
India is set to lose around 130 million jobs due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Yes. Take a moment. Swallow that and read on.

By Nandini Narayanswamy
27 June 2020
With the growing uncertainty of not knowing when the educational institutions may open, schools and universities are trying to find ways to conduct classes & examinations amidst the pandemic. In this issue we bring you the latest developments with regard to conducting examinations for CBSE, UGC guidelines for universities and other developments in the education sector.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
14 June 2020
The statistics on corona deaths and infections are on the rise in India. But the private school & parent community are in support of academic sessions to commence. "Online classes must happen if learning must continue", seems to be a common opinion. In this issue we bring you important developments on online classes imparted by schools during the pandemic.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy
3 June 2020
The government and the education department has been issuing various directives and circulars to address the employer/employee concerns, on school re-opening, school fees etc. Read on to know more

By Nivedita Krishna
7 January 2020
Policies to be mandatorily implemented for by schools to ensure schools are a safe place for both children and teachers

By Nivedita Krishna
3 December 2019
The latest circular issued by the Office of Commissioner provides for the manner in which fee shall be collected and the determination of fee

By Nivedita Krishna
23 November 2019
Organizations are now required to mandatorily pay minimum wages as per the circular dated 17th October, 2019 issued by the Karnataka Labour Department

By Nivedita Krishna
15 November 2019
As we celebrated Childrens’ Day across India, the city of Delhi, shrouded by smog had to shut schools and advise the children to stay at home. Karnataka, on the other hand in late October and early November 2019 issued directives to schools on safety measures.

By Nivedita Krishna
10 November 2019
It is not just the parents who are fighting the battle to keep their children away from junk food, the FSSAI, the country's food regulatory authority is also concerned with the increased consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar by school going children. To address this issue, the FSSAI has released the Food Safety and Standards (Safe food and healthy diets for School Children) Regulations, 2019 to regulate the meals provided at schools.

By Nandini Narayanaswamy


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The Pulse is Pacta’s in-house periodic newsletter that carries legal updates for the social sector. We decrypt legalese into digestible, relevant & actionable content. In every issue, we pick a subject – a new law, amendment or judgement and contextualise it for non-profit founders and administrators.


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